by Ilona Wysmułek, Graduate School for Social Research, Polish Academy of Sciences
Corruption, given its secretive nature, is a phenomenon that is hard to capture in the interview situation.
In corruption research, surveys are among the major sources of our knowledge about the subject (Heath, Richards and de Graaf 2016; Karalashvili, Kraay and Murrell 2015). However, there are several methodological challenges to studying cross-national trends in corruption with public opinion data. Corruption, given its secretive nature, is a phenomenon that is hard to capture in the interview situation. Some respondents are reluctant to answer sensitive questions and some may understand the concept differently than intended by researchers (Azfar and Murrell 2009; Bertrand and Mullainathan 2001). Moreover, international survey projects dealing with corruption continue to face challenges of unequal country representation. Estimation of rare event determinants also remains problematic, given that reported corruption instances are, for most modern democracies, highly infrequent.
To overcome some of these methodological problems, I apply ex-post harmonization of cross-national survey data in corruption research. In my dissertation project, I study corruption perception and individual corruption experience of giving informal payments (as a bribe or a gift) in public schools in Europe. I use cross-national survey data on corruption in public schools in Europe combined with country-level indicators, for example from the World Bank Education Statistics and OECD’s Education at a Glance. I follow the Survey Data Recycling (SDR) framework developed by the research team of Kazimierz M. Slomczynski, which provides a blueprint for ex-post survey data harmonization and for integrating surveys and other data sources (please see corruption project for more detailed information).